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It was determined that Shoghi Effendi's objectives in translating the work into English affected his English rendition. The translator's overriding goals or purposes find expression in the textual goals, the actual objectives of the specific translation. The major norms are implemented by subordinate norms. Thus, two levels of goals and of norms have been isolated and analyzed. Critical considerations are: 1 A Cultural Analysis of Education. The underlying assumption embodies the idea that the problem of finding a unifying frame of reference for curriculum is intertwined with the fragmentation of cultural patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.

For this reason, the study alleges that education, as a social institution, if considered apart from the process of cultural change, does not offer a significant alternative to the growing complexity of human problems. The foregoing argument suggests that a philosophy about cultural change is logically prior to an inclusive theory of education.

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It is further argued that the necessary and desirable educational dispositions are the ones which have been derived from the aims, principles, and methods of such a unifying philosophy. The latter characteristics are used to generate curriculum aims. In conclusion, it is argued that since the full and harmonious development of man's spiritual nature requires an appropriate social environment, the curriculum, in order to be comprehensive, must address the processes of both individual transformation and social change.

These two aims are then considered mutually interactive and together provide a matrix for the development of a comprehensive curriculum theory. Some remained in the Holy Land to study the teachings in depth and learn Persian and Arabic. On their return, they translated and printed books and guidelines and held more classes for children and adults. During his eight-month stay, he visited a number of educational institutions and individuals associated with education.

He presented discourses at many universities, including Columbia, Howard, and Stanford. He revealed many tablets on the subject of education and constantly encouraged developments in that field. Louhelen is a two-year college with a special educational program and is affiliated with Mott Community College and the University of Michigan-Flint.

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This finding supports evidence, from other analyses of American culture, that Americans tend to privatize their concepts of social forms. This finding offers an alternative to prevailing social science models that see conversion to "cults" and "sects" as something exotic to be explained by social function or psychological need, rather than as a reproduction of a fundamental American cultural concept: the individual. First, it seeks to substantiate the inclusion of spiritual ideals within the planning and development of non-formal education programs. As such, the review of the literature will also develop a rationale.

This rationale is a philosophical and historical investigation of the central premises of formal education and the development of an alternative philosophical foundation more relevant to the problems of rural development. It proposes that the central dilemma of the modern epoch is a confusion of first principles; that human affairs and the systems designed to serve them have been impoverished by the wholesale application of a reductionist paradigm. This paradigm works extremely well for the physical sciences, but is wholly inadequate when applied to human affairs.

The humanitarian ideal as enunciated by Socrates and Plato is suggested as a much more appropriate paradigm for human service systems. The second purpose of the dissertation is the development of some initial educational materials and strategies that could symbolize spiritual concepts in a way which would permit dialogue with a non-literate population. A developmental project operationalizing the theoretical premises outlined in the rationale is initiated.

This project involves the selection of a rural, non-literate population and develops symbolical vehicles and educational strategies designed to disseminate these concepts to this population. This will primarily involve the development of a booklet of visual analogies. The target populations are selected communities in South Carolina and Georgia comprised of members of the Baha' ' i Faith, a worldwide, independent religion. The planned methodology is described in Chapter III. However, what emerges from the project's development is something quite different from what was anticipated at the outset.

The "emergent outcomes" enable the author to critique the value of empirical models of evaluation within non-formal settings. This critique and the results of the evaluation are contained within Chapter V. The dissertation concludes by suggesting possible approaches to evaluation and program structure which are more consonant with the philosophical premises enshrined in the humanitarian ideal. This study suggests that James Carey's "ritual" theory of communication offers a more adequate theoretical description of the communication process and that the "ritual" theory finds its practical corollary in the notion of "community participation"--peoples' access to, participation in and, ultimately, self-management of the social institutions that affect their lives.

Few attempts have been made to apply principles of participation to development-oriented media messages and institutions. In addition, two surveys assessed audience response to the station and its programming.

The findings suggest that a "ritual" theory of communication holds great promise for the advancement of the field of communication and that the model of a participatory media institution developed by the station is a significant innovation worthy of replication and adaptation in both agrarian and industrialized societies. The models proposed by Lofland and Stark and Snow, Zucker and Ekland-Olson are examined using interview data from twenty-three informants.

The findings indicate that neither model is adequate to account for conversion in this group. Material on religious mobility drawn from the literature is set forth in Chapter VII, while Chapter VIII is a detailed summary of the conversion experience of the twenty-three informants. The last chapter examines the two models using the material from the interviews.

A content analysis research design and methodology was employed. Written communications were analyzed in order to test 2 general hypotheses and 14 subhypotheses and make inferences about the psychological characteristics of the communicators to assess their beliefs and responses.

Analysis of the data using frequency distribution and percentage distribution on seven belief components yielded a significant mean percentage of occurrence of Frequency distribution and percentage distribution on seven response components yielded a significant mean percentage of occurrence of Results of the study supported the premises that in individuals undergoing persecution and imminent execution, faith and belief in a cause--spiritual in this case--gives them a new and unique meaning to suffering which transforms fear and anxiety into joy.

It also creates a sense of acceptance, an enlightenment which arouses courage, and a perceived transcendental opportunity to affirm the truth of their belief and their love for mankind. Pain and suffering were converted into a responsibility and commitment to their faith.


The Body Politic in the Social and Political Thought of Christine de Pizan (Unabridged Version)

Without neglecting, and with full attention to, their biological world, the world of relationships, and their own unique personal realm, they acknowledged their tragic situation and transformed it into a source of tranquility and certitude in the meaning and purpose of their lives. Tobey was firmly committed to this religion from until his death in His philosophy and attitudes about the meaning of life, the course of history, the prospects for the future of civilization, and the importance of artistic expression, were in conformity with the tenets of the Baha' ' i Faith.

After a brief introduction, chapter one discusses the artistic environment within which Tobey developed. Associated with the New York avant-garde before , Tobey was subsequently in contact with other major modern artistic movements of this century during their early stages of development in America. The summary of his artistic biography is followed by a chapter describing Tobey's early contacts with the Baha' ' i Faith, and a brief discussion of the Faith's history and basic principles.

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This chapter also includes the highlights of Tobey's Baha' ' i activities and his statements about his beliefs. Chapter four examines Tobey's early attempts at religious expression using representational means. His development of modes of expressing concepts beyond external appearances is the topic of the fifth chapter. The integration of his non-objective pictorial solutions with the use of Arabic and Persian calligraphy as religious iconography is explored next. Chapter seven reevaluates the influence of Asian art upon Tobey's paintings, distinguishing between the "calligraphic impulse" he received from Chinese and Japanese art and the use of Middle Eastern calligraphy as content.

Light, time and space, and Revelation are three recurrent themes in Tobey's work. In chapter eight these themes are examined in relation to Baha' ' i teachings, especially as expressed in books owned by Tobey and in statements he made about these subjects. The impact of the Baha' ' i Faith upon Tobey's formal development, as well as upon the content of his paintings, is summarized in the conclusion. A coda assesses the status of Mark Tobey in twentieth century art. An international Baha' ' i traveling teacher is one who travels overseas on a temporary assignment to assist the host-country Baha' ' i institutions with their plans and programs.

The purpose of this investigation was to determine selection criteria and training needs for international Baha' ' i traveling teachers. Following a literature review of the fields of cross-cultural communication and international training design, and a content analysis of traveling teacher reports, a questionnaire was developed, tested, and mailed to returned teachers, and to Baha' ' i institutions in the 81 countries they had visited.

Responses reflect the diversity of the travel-teaching experience. Field conditions encountered by teachers are described, activities performed and resources used are ranked by importance and need for instruction, desirable teacher characteristics are specified, critical incidents are discussed, and major influences on performance are determined. A correlational analysis indicates that travel-teaching success is largely related to careful planning and regular assistance from the host Baha' ' i community. A factor analysis shows Team Composition, Trip Purpose, Types of Co-workers, and Planning and Supervision, to be the four main components underlying success.

Based on the findings, selection criteria are recommended, and a four-level orientation and training program is outlined. The program emphasizes job competence, language fluency, cross-cultural communication, area studies, and overseas living and travel skills. When the world of God is concerned, the three most important principles are: a absolute unity of the essence and the attributes of God; b unity of God and His Manifestations; and c the world of creation as an echo of the unity of God.

In the world of the Manifestations the two essential tenets are: a the unity underlying the reality of the Manifestations and b the unity of the Manifestations' Missions to advance mankind toward world unity. Unity is also shown in at least two principles when the human being is concerned: a the essential unity of the spiritual, intellectual, and physical dimensions of man and b the necessity for unity of mankind.

The basic principle of unity of all epistemological modes directly implies that different instructional methodologies be considered complementary and be utilized harmoniously. In brief, the concept of unity is embodied in and dominates almost all the elements of education, including the nature of curriculum, the role of the teacher, and the function of administrative bodies. Among these are: 1 the absence of equal rights and statuses between men and women, a fact which tends to discourage women from pursuing formal education, making decisions about their social and personal lives such as number of children, and 2 a high level of fatalism which discourages planning, rational decision making, and the utilization of modern medical and health measures.

A scale of socio-economic status was devised to measure this independent variable.

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The result indicated that in the Moslem village, the birthrate was higher, the number of desired children was higher than the number of pregnancies, the number of children who were born was lower than the number of pregnancies, the number of children who lived was the lowest of all. Furthermore, the number of accidents and losses for baby girls among the Areteh villagers Moslem was more than that for baby boys. This reflects the desirability and preferences for male offspring among Moslems.

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In the religion was transmitted to North America from where, over a period of six decades, a vigorous campaign of global dissemination was undertaken. By , the religion was well established on all continents; thereafter, global diffusion proceeded from a number of widely distributed centers of the religion rather than from just the two older core areas Persia and North America. In the early years, growth was generally encouraged by the charismatic leaders of the religion, but from on expansion was directed by definitive and authoritative plans embodying the three main strategies for growth.

The religion has been considered as an innovation, and its dissemination has been viewed as a consequence of its internal structure and decision-making patterns. For example, in its early years the religion was geographically confined by its cultural context and religious roots while later on political conditions frequently influenced where the movement could and could not become established.

In general, physical, social, and economic distance have inhibited diffusion, but aggressive dissemination policies and ambitious growth plans have greatly weakened the force of these traditional resistors to diffusion. Within this area, growth was substantial but not constant. In the first few decades there were alternating periods of growth and decline and only after the s did the religion begin to increase its membership at a steadily accelerating rate.

At the core of Hayden's poetry is his conviction that poetry is a means by which he can correct racial stereotypes and distortion of Afro-American history. His interest in Afro-American and other oppressed groups aligns him with humanistic writers who have championed the cause of the dignity and human rights of man. Hayden is a symbolist poet writing in the modern romantic tradition, but his fidelity to facts relates him to the realists. Notwithstanding his recent national honors, Hayden is still a relatively unknown American poet. Therefore, this dissertation includes a brief biography which serves both to introduce the poet to the audience and provide insight into his shaping influences, motivating factors, and resources.

The Great Depression provides the perspective through which Hayden handled the material of his first volume, and it motivated the humanistic concern in much of his subsequent poetry. Heart Shape in the Dust reveals Hayden's early leftist sympathies and, more importantly, it initiates his Afro-American history themes. Poems of didactic statement characterize this apprentice work, but it demonstrates some regard for style and non-topical American Marxist content that foreshadows Hayden's later achievement.

Hayden's poems, free of leftist preaching and rhetorical style, form the first half of The Lion and the Archer co-author Myron O'Higgins' poems comprise the second half. If you're not sure where to start, check out a Research Guide. Toggle navigation. Popular Databases. We haven't yet identified any Popular databases. Check back soon! The following databases are newly acquired or being evaluated for a future subscription.

This opens a pop-up window to share the URL for this database. The African American Historical Serials Collection features periodicals spanning from through The periodicals in this collection include newspapers and magazines, in addition to reports and annuals from various African American organizations, including churches and educational and service institutions.

This collection was developed in conjunction with the American Theological Library Association ATLA as part of an effort to preserve endangered serials related to African American religious life and culture. The product of more than 10 years of organizing and collecting materials, the African American Historical Serials Collection is a complete, centralized and accessible resource of formerly fragmentary, widely-dispersed and endangered materials—titles were collected from 75 institutions, including small institutions that had not previously participated in preservation projects.

Now compiled and accessible to researchers in one digital collection, this unique resource documents the history of African American life and religious organizations in the 19th century United States. Database to help building-industry professionals design and build construction projects that minimize ecological impact and maximize economic performance.

Includes access to Environmental Building News articles, lists for GreenSpec products and specification guidelines, and detailed project case studies of high-performance buildings. Each article, product listing, and case study also lists related content and information sources. Civil War Primary Source Documents from The New-York Historical Society presents unique manuscript material chronicling all aspects of the American Civil War from warfare on land, at sea, in hospitals and prison camps, and reactions and impressions of the War from the home front.

The collection, comprised of over , pages, focuses on the War as it was fought from to and represents both Northern and Southern perspectives. It also contains important contextual documents leading up to War and after its conclusion. The collection provides researchers with access to letters; diaries; administrative records; photographs; illustrations; artifacts such as reading glasses, wooden boxes, and pocketbooks; various scrapbook journals; family portraits; and maps featuring hand-colored details of troop movements and local landmarks. Highlights from the collection include the papers of David Cronin, a famous soldier and artist; the letters of three soldier-brothers to their family back home in the Lyon family papers, soldiers' diaries chronicling daily life and experiences as prisoners of war; women's diaries discussing life on the home front; accounts from famous people, such as Ulysses S.